Tuesday, October 25, 2011

To Jupiter research probe Juno is directed

With the cosmodrome located on cape Canaveral, and to Jupiter started interplanetary research probe Juno. This research probe becomes the space vehicle first for last fifteen years which will be directed on studying of this gas giant. Mission is estimated in the cost, equal 1,1 billion dollars. For this purpose that the probe would reach Jupiter, to be necessary for it four years. However it is necessary to notice that yakt that at the start, the probe will go not at once to the purpose of the mission, and in 2013 it again will return to the Earth, having flown about it, for fulfillment of gravitational maneuver and reception of additional acceleration.

Research probe Dawn has reached an asteroid of "Vesta"

To one of the largest asteroids which orbit lies between an orbit of Mars and Jupiter. The asteroid of Vesta is the asteroid second for the size which is in the Main asteroid belt. For research of this space body, in 2007, to it towards, space research probe Dawn has been sent. In July of current year, the research probe has orbited an asteroid, in September it has come nearer to a surface of Vesty on distance in 600 kilometres, and by November, will be at height in 200 kilometres from an asteroid surface. The primary goal which has been assigned to a research probe, fulfillment of framing of a surface of an asteroid which outwardly, bears a strong resemblance to the Moon surface enough.
Often enough, Vesta is perceived not as a large asteroid, and as very small planet. It is possible to explain it to that Vesta has a number of features and properties with which other planets of Solar system, such as Venus, Merkury, Mars or the Earth possess. However because of the small size and consequently also weights, Vesta cannot keep atmosphere round itself.

Usual pair of dead stars is found out not

In constellation of the Maiden, scientists find out symbolical enough pair of stars. The friend round the friend one not born star and a dense space corpse another rotate. Two these stars which and not managed to turn to high-grade space objects, form strange enough pair. One of stars is the brown dwarf, the second the white dwarf. Both these stars, form strange enough pair, rotating thus round one general centre of weights. To find out them it was possible thanks to a telescope of the Hawaiian observatory.
Both found out dwarfs belong to enough rare group of space objects, and the similar neighbourhood of white and brown dwarfs in general do the found out group unique. The similar neighbourhood extremely seldom also represents on true the present find for astronomers.

Double stars can quite promote greens development on planets

Among a large quantity of the stars known to scientists of the Earth, only small part can become a haven for this purpose that on a planet about them life would arise. However now, before scientists there was a question, whether life on a planet which exists in double star system can arise.
Two sun ascending over horizon of a planet – a favourite picture for all fantastic films. However the similar show can be observed from surface of some planets which are found out by scientists outside of Solar system. Already now scientists try to foresee, what vegetation on similar planets would be, considering the fact of that it would receive light at once from two sun.
For the scientist star systems with two sun and planets with which those shine are already known. And now every possible hypotheses concerning that are under construction, than the similar systems having two sun, differ from what have only one.

In heat of white dwarfs thousand ekzoplanet can be warmed

Practically all found  ekzoplanety are lately about hot stars. However, according to scientists, it is possible to look for life and nearby “star corpses” whom white dwarfs are.
Throughout last several tens years, scientists made searches ekzoplanet exclusively about those stars in which rough thermonuclear reaction resulted. Depending on a star and as remoteness from it planets, became deduce about, whether there can be each concrete planet to that on which life possibly could arise. The factor of remoteness of a planet concerned an indispensable condition from a star that on it would not be too cold or too hot.
However according to last calculations of astronomers to try to begin searches ekzoplanet it is possible and about white dwarfs whom the same was no time high-grade stars, however in due course, because of small weight, at them fuel has ended, it is necessary for maintenance of process of thermonuclear reaction and having lost a hydrogen stock in the kernel, at a star it starts to burn in its external layers. At this stage, the star turns to the red giant, considerably increasing in the sizes. After that, external layers burn out and there is an explosion which destroys all in radius, approximately, one astronomical unit.

Supernew stars

The supernew

Supernew stars – a version of the stars finishing the evolutionary process by catastrophic explosion of huge capacity. The term "supernew" has appeared as distinctive from the term "new" – so stars which flash with increase in visible luminosity in thousand times are called. Luminosity supernew on some usages above, than luminosity of the new. It is necessary to tell that these terms are faster historically developed concepts, than the definitions reflecting a real physical essence of process as in all cases stars which already exist flash. However in some cases flashes of stars which were not observed before have been fixed (i.e. were not visible to terrestrial observers for whatever reasons), creating effect of "birth" of a new star.
The phenomenon of the supernew accompanies the end of existence of a huge star. At process of burning of stars hydrogen is used; after "use" of all its stocks as nuclear fuel other, heavier elements start to "be used". When all elements, suitable for burning process come to an end, the star starts to lose the physical stability and is promptly compressed to the centre. Finally it leads to that the central part of a star will be transformed to superdense neutron weight, and the external part of a cover is dumped – this process and can be observed as occurrence of the supernew. However, it is only theoretical calculations of scientists in which there are many points at issue.
The huge star belonging to Big Magellanovomu to the Cloud which is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way was brightest of supernew lately. This explosion observed in 1987, was well visible an unaided sight, without looking at all at that fact that the distance to this galaxy is great enough even on space scales – about 168 thousand light years.

In constellation of the Big she-bear the supernew has flashed

331x252_dhlchiiqxlkso3ldhlpjp4xwwcq0wgraAstronomers fix flash of a supernew star in constellation of the Big Dipper. This supernew, can become the brightest flash, out of our galaxy which the scientist could be fixed throughout last several decades. All attention of researchers also will be riveted on this supernew throughout the next years.
Flash of this supernew has been fixed last Wednesday. It has occurred in galaxy М101 which is located in constellation under the name the Big Dipper. Is supernew on removal in 21 million light years from the Earth. For the first time has fixed flash supernew the robotised observatory located in California. It specialises on fixation and search of flashing objects, and as flickering, variables, stars. The supernew has been fixed practically right after the flash and further supervision over it was already conducted continuously. Brightness of radiation accrued with each minute. In a current of one days it became brighter about 20 times.
In a current of hour, co-ordinates of the flashed supernew have been dispatched in the largest observatories worldwide for this purpose what to begin joint supervision and studying of this phenomenon. And after three hours, from the moment of flash fixation, thanks to telescope work on Canary Islands, scientists already could obtain the data concerning the spectral analysis of the flashed supernew. It became for them the present gift.

Scientists have found out formation new ekzoplanety

Personally to make supervision over how “the sacrament of a birth” absolutely young planet is made, has had the luck to the American astronomers. Similar it became probably exclusive thanks to a refined technique of supervision and itself gazopylevoj a disk.
This opening has been carried out thanks to 10 metre telescopes under the name of Keka which is located on Hawaii. The object, with index LkCa appropriated to it 15 b, has been found out about star LkCa 15. According to all features, it is similar to a hot protoplanet which rotates round the star. Movement of this planet occurs in a tear gazopylevogo a disk. As by scientists it is established that the substance of a disk still continues to drop out on a planet, thereby increasing in due course its weight.
Object LkCa 15 b is the youngest protoplanet which ever could be observed the scientist. It has age which approximately five times is less than at earlier known "record-holder". Earlier, to make supervision over this planet it was not represented possible that it too close is about a star. And only having applied absolutely new principle of supervision, scientific could receive the information about this planet and as to observe of its formation inside gazopylevogo clouds.

Monday, October 24, 2011

Researches of Mercury by tests and opening

Scientists bring the first results of a finding in an orbit of Mercury of research probe Messenger. To the Earth many pictures with high resolution on which have been sent craters, their structure, and as a bottom were accurately visible. Thanks to presence of necessary devices, was as the structure of a ground of Mercury is defined.
Having orbited merkurija, the planet nearest to the Sun, Solar System, the probe has started the three-monthly work – stay of this research probe in an orbit of this planet so much is planned. Thanks to the   devices established on the research space vehicle, scientists could receive the information concerning a structure of a surface of a planet, its characteristic magnitosfery and its interactions with a solar wind.
At studying of pictures, scientists could find out bright enough spotty adjournment at the bottom in some craters. Shooting which has been made by two-regime chamber MDIS, has shown that the given colour adjournment are in certain sequence with the hollows which width fluctuated since several metres and finishing several kilometres. These hollows have been surrounded by a material which well enough reflects light. Similar forms of a relief are unique and did not meet earlier on one of investigated planets.

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Brown dwarfs cannot warm each other

Brown dwarfs, will be correct to carry in a greater degree to stars, than to planets more likely. These space objects have erased a clear boundary between these two classes of space bodies.
Now, it is possible to say that henceforth distinctions between so different astronomical objects what stars and planets are, are definitively erased. Not far from Solar system (to space measures), scientists has been found out strange pair of space bodies define an accessory of one of which scientists simply could not. Supervision were conducted by means of a telescope established in the Hawaiian observatory. Scientists could not be defined with that in any way, to what class to carry this object – to stars or planets. Dark pair has been found in constellation of Volopasa. The double object has received name CFBDSIR 1458+10. It has appeared so dim what to observe it was probably exclusive in an infra-red range, moreover and by means of variety of adaptations compensating trembling of terrestrial atmosphere. There are both brown dwarfs on distance in 3 astronomical units and rotate round the general gravitational centre.

Solar system. An origin of Solar system.

The set of theories was offered scientists concerning occurrence of Solar system. In the forties 20 centuries from the USSR have been assumed by scientist-astronomer Otto Schmidt that the star during rotation round the Galaxy centre, grasped dust clouds. From the given substance were generated planetezimali – cold, dense doplanetnye bodies.
The given theory concerns not only our Solar system, it concerns all present kosmogonii.

Picture in an infra-red range
If to trust computer calculations the primary weight gazopylevogo clouds of which the Solar system was formed, made 104 M. the Given congestion, many times over exceeded on weight present system, it was to similarly cold fogs between stars and consisted of 99 % of gas and 1 % of a dust. Similar formation of system has been investigated by means of a telescope by it. Keka (Hawaiian Islands) with star HR 4796. As it is possible to observe in a picture (an infra-red range) round a star the disk in radius 200 a.e is generated., in the central part there is no interstellar dust. As scientists consider, planets are already generated and at present comets in an external part are formed. Under the standard theory formation of planets occurs in four stages. Formation of planets occurs from this a material and in the same terms, as stars. Initially, dust cloud is compressed that leads to loss of stability by it. Two parts of this cloud are formed separately. The central part rotates and compressed, turns to a protostar, other dust cloud which in 10 times less than the central part slowly rotates round the centre and is compressed independently. Gas is condensed in firm substance, without passing a stage with a liquid state. Thus, it is formed larger dust particles.


The bewitching Saturn
Saturn – one of four gas giants of Solar system. It is the sixth (if to consider from the Sun) and second-large (after Jupiter) a planet of our system. The wide public Saturn is known first of all for the rings (it is necessary to notice that rings are at all gas giants of Solar system, is simple at Saturn they are most brightly expressed), however not only rings do this planet such interesting. Here some the curious facts about a planet Saturn:
1. On Saturn are fixed (thanks to devices "Voyagers") the strongest of a wind in Solar system. Their speed reaches 500 km/s. The basic direction of an air stream – east (as well as a direction of axial rotation). However in the course of removal from planet equator the western air currents are shown also. The data obtained by scientists testifies that a wind is not limited to the top layer of clouds, but also extends inside, at least on 2 thousand kilometres. Besides, a wind of northern and southern hemispheres are symmetric and, most likely, are somehow connected under a visible layer of atmosphere.


Gravitation is an interaction in the nature which can subordinate to itself all bodies which have weight. Nevertheless gravitation exists only in space, the given name as exists in section of physics which studies the given action.
Gravitational interaction
This one of four most basic interactions which exist in our world. If to consider the classical mechanics it is possible to describe the given action by the law of universal gravitation of Newton which says on that an attraction between bodies the weights divided into distance it and are gravitation.
Possibility to enter potential energy an attraction of pair bodies, says that a weight field potentially, this potentiality specifies to us as in the new law of preservation of the sum of kinetic and potential energy.
The given gravitational interaction, says that the massive body, as though did not move, but nevertheless it depends only on correct position of a body at the moment.
Such space objects as planets, stars and galaxies in itself create gravitational fields which depend on the big weight of the given objects, and it is necessary to notice that in the given period gravitation is very weak interaction.
Gravitation is a unique interaction which has influence not only on a matter, but also on energy, and is as objects in which the gravitational charge is not looked through at all.
Structure of galaxies and as black holes, it is processes, which directly svjazanny with gravitation. This interaction was one of the very first which managed to be described matematicheski. And here Aristotle considered that all objects fall with different speed which depends on their weight, and Galileo Galilej has proved that it at all so. The general theory of a relativity has appeared in 1915, it was described by Albert Einstein, the given theory more all approaches under the gravitation description.

Unique Merkury

Merkury – one of the most interesting planets of Solar system. In spite of the fact that the planet of Merkury is rather close to mother Earth (belongs to so-called to "terrestrial group”), it is studied poorly enough. However the information known to astronomers-researchers only confirms that fact that with Merkury – a unique planet of our system. We would like to result some interesting supervision which confirm uniqueness of this planet:

1. Fastest of planets of Solar system – a planet of Merkury. So, by calculations of astronomers, average speed of the reference of this planet round the Sun is equal 172248 km/h. That is, speed Merkurija practically twice more than speed of the reference of the Earth. And, recognising that a planet other planets to the Sun are located most close and has such high speed, follows that year on Merkurie (i.e. a time interval for which one complete revolution round the Sun is made) is equal approximately to three terrestrial months (87,99 days if to be more exact).
2. Star days (i.e. the period, for which space object makes a turn about the axis in relation to stars) on Merkurii last about 2/3 years (merkurianskogo certainly). Such parities of cycle times and planet rotation it is unique for our system. Theoretically, it speaks gravitational influence of the Sun, but, as though there was not, it is available that fact that solar days (i.e. time period, for which space object makes a turn about the axis concerning the Sun) on a planet of Merkury last three star days or two merkurianskih year.
3. Unique movement of a planet of Merkury generates one more surprising phenomenon. Within eight days on a certain site of an orbit of a planet (close perigelija, i.e. in the point nearest to the Sun) the Sun "stops" and then continues to a soya movement from the West on the east (Jesus Navina's so-called effect). It occur that speed rotary planets during this period more low, than speed of orbital movement.
4. Actually Merkury time most part is the nearest to mother Earth because of features of the movement (since Merkury "is strongly adhered" to the Sun, it leaves on smaller distance, than other planets). Though, on an arrangement of the orbits, Venus and Mars are the nearest planets.
Except these, there is still a set of other most interesting aspects which do a planet of Merkury really by a unique planet in our Solar system.

The sun

The description

 The sun is the centre, a dominating star in our Solar system. And though this star plays a huge role for our planetary system, on the scale of the Universe at this star enough average physical parametres which are up to standard of a star-dwarf. The sun is an enormous sphere from plasma (the gas sated with ions) which basically consists of hydrogen and helium.

The structure of the Sun known as on supervision, and as result of construction of theoretical models, layered. In the centre the kernel in which chain thermonuclear reactions proceed is located. Round a kernel there are sites circular konvektsii and radiating carrying over. The most external cover is a photosphere, chromosphere and a crown.

Though a kernel it is impossible to make out directly, physical parametres in its bowels are known with a fine precision. In a kernel the 15 million temperature ok remains and density about 100/sm3 Such conditions allow to proceed to nuclear processes in which course hydrogen turns to helium during the reaction known as “a proton – a proton”. During this reaction the energy large quantity is liberated. At formation of one kernel of helium 6 hundred billion calories is allocated approximately.

The energy arising during thermonuclear transformations, allows the Sun to support the existence and not kollapsirovat under the influence of gravity of own weight. Our star is in a balance condition between two these forces about 4,5 billion years, and it is supposed that the hydrogen which is in a kernel, will provide its stability for long enough period.

The Earth

The Earth is the greatest on weight, density and diameter from all zemlepodobnyh planets. Is thirds planet from the Sun in Solar system. At present is a unique planet known to mankind occupied by reasonable beings. The Earth has been formed 4,54 billion years ago after that has found the companion – the Moon.

The colour image from mission of Apolon 17

By calculations life on a planet has arisen 3,5 billion years ago. Since then the planet has strongly changed: atmosphere and others abioticheskie factors has changed. It has occurred at the expense of growth of aerobic organisms and formation of an ozone layer which protects a planet from solar radiation. The earthen bark consists of several tectonic plates, which in due course dvizhutsja on a surface. About 71 % of all surface of a planet it is covered by water, other part is divided into islands and continents. The internal part of the Earth consists of the iron kernel, covering its liquid external kernels and cloaks (rather firm layer).

The Earth co-operates in space with the natural companion and the Sun. For 365.26 days the planet does a complete revolution round the Sun. The Earth is under an inclination of 23,4 degrees to the orbital plane, at the expense of it seasonal changes on a planet are observed. The period of the given changes makes Tropical year (365,24 solar days). The unique companion of a planet – the Moon, has started to rotate on a circumterraneous orbit 4,53 billion years ago. Thanking its rotation the axis of an inclination of the Earth is stabilised, there are inflow and otlivy, planet rotation is slowed down.

Source: ru.wikipedia.org


Jupiter – the gas giant, the largest planet in Solar system, is 5 planet from the Sun. In 2 times exceeds weight of all other planets in this system.

Jupiter is known to mankind since ancient times, on that its reflexion can be found in mythology and beliefs of many cultures. Roman empire (one of great empires of the past) has entitled a planet in honour of god of Jupiter. At supervision from the Earth brightness of a planet reaches 2.8 star sizes that does by its third object on brightness in the night sky (after the Moon and Venus).

On a stone kernel of a planet which is under the big pressure, there is a helium and hydrogen layer, the planet mainly consists of these elements. Thanks to a great speed of rotation the form of Jupiter spljusnutyj a spheroid. Planet atmosphere consists of several strips along planet widths that leads to storms and storm on a planet surface. It is possible to notice result of it – the Big Red Stain. It is known since 18 centuries, it is a huge storm. At space vehicle "Галилео" descent, it has been defined that pressure and temperature at deepening are very great.

In a planet orbit 63 moon have been found out. From them 4 big, named "galileevymi". They have been opened in 1610 Galileo Galileem. One of companions, Ganimed, bolshy on diameter, than Merkury. The strongest in Solar system active volcanoes on companion Io, and under a surface of Europe is the global ocean. As planetary rings have been found out in Jupiter except companions. 

Records of a planet Mars

Knowingly Mars name "the Red Planet"
Mars – a planet of terrestrial group, the fourth if to consider from the Sun and taking the seventh place on the to the sizes in our solar system. The red planet (and so name Mars thanking oksidu gland which gives its surfaces a reddish shade) is known to us for a long time and serves as perhaps "favourite" object of science fiction writers, directors of sci-fi movies and other creative persons who are fond of "space" products. But Mars is interesting not only and not how many to these. The curious facts about the Red planet are more low listed some:

1. On Mars there is an Olympus – the biggest volcano and the greatest mountain in Solar system. Its height equals to 25 kilometres in relation to the average level of a planet and 27 kilometres concerning the mountain basis. The area occupied with the Olympus, reaches the diameter approximately 550 kilometres. We remind that the highest point of the Earth – the Everest – does not reach and 9 kilometres.

At a birth, Mars was "stolen" a floodlight

Thanks to the spent computer modelling, scientists could explain the reason of therefore Mars became such "small". Having made computer modelling, scientists could construct a hypothesis of that could become the reason for it. To it directly it has appeared Jupiter is involved.
Those from scientists who prosecute a subjects of an origin of the planets, try to understand which year the reason of why it is so much many distinctions is observed in planets of terrestrial group, and so among planets-giants. However against it, difference of Mars from other planets is most brightly expressed. The matter is that Mars has arisen approximately at the same time with Venus and the Earth how it is possible to explain the fact of what it practically twice is less than earth and approximately ten times it is easier than it?
As a hypothesis which it explains, scientists have accepted the theory of migration of planets, and as mathematical calculations and computer modelling.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Supertelescopes Herschel and Planck have gone to space

On May, 14th, 2009, at 17:12 Moscow time two European telescopes Herschel and Planck successfully started from the cosmodrome the Hen onboard Ariane 5 carrier rocket. The devices, managed to Europe in a total sum of 1,9 billion euro, urged to collect many the new information on an origin and evolution of the Universe and, probably, to find signs of the Multiuniverse and traces of events to a Big Bang. To the telescopes named names of great scientists, it is necessary to leave into the a bit excellent orbits round a point of Lagranzha L2, on what some weeks will leave. Then these companions really will open the new chapter in observant astronomy.  Herschel is the largest telescope deduced in space. Its main mirror has diameter of 3,5 metres. It thus weighs only 350 kgs as it is executed from silicon carbide. Larger mirror James Vebba's space telescope (James Webb Space Telescope) will possess only, but that starts only in 2013, besides the range of perceived frequencies at it is not blocked with that at "Gershelja". Last is interesting also by cooling system. The tank with superfluid helium freezes the central part of the device to 1,65 degrees kelvina, and telescope detectors will directly work at temperature only 0,3 To!
All it will allow to fix with unprecedented accuracy the weak waves coming from remote corners of space (so - from the remote past). Will work Herschel in the distant infra-red and submillimetric areas of a spectrum well punching interstellar clouds of a dust and gas. Scientists expect to glance with its help in such past of the Universe when to it was five times less years, than now and when intensively there were first stars.

"Gershel" (above, as is shown in this drawing, it the first will separate from the top missile stage) and "Planck" (below). Both telescopes are made by trans-European company Thales Alenia Space (known to us on mission on Tsereru) with the assistance of hundred subcontractors, including the well-known giant EADS Astrium. This pair companions is the most expensive useful loading in the history of the European space agency, ever established on one rocket (illustrations and photo ESA).